• Okky S. Dharmaputra Phytopathology Laboratory, Science Innovation and Technology Department, SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor 16134, Indonesia
  • Ina Retnowati Phytopathology Laboratory, Science Innovation and Technology Department, SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor 16134, Indonesia
  • Nijma Nurfadila Phytopathology Laboratory, Research Department, SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor 16134, Indonesia




Arabica coffee, biocontrol agent, Candida krusei, cupping test, ochratoxigenic fungi, yeast


Biocontrol agents can be used to control mycotoxigenic fungi, which include different species of yeast. The objectives of this research were to select yeast isolates that can inhibit the growth of ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing fungi (Aspergillus ochraceus BIO 37310) and to increase the taste of Arabica coffee processed using wet and semi-wet methods. Twenty-two yeast isolates (KA, KA2, KB, KB2, KC, KD, Endomyces decipiens BIO 131215, E. fibuliger BIO 132216, BIO 132217, BIO 13218, BIO 132219, BIO 132220, Candida krusei (= Issatchenkia orientalis) BIO 211285, BIO 211286, BIO 211287, BIO 211288, BIO 211289, BIO 211290, BIO 211291, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BIO 341363, BIO 341364, and BIO 341365) were screened for their antagonistic property against A. ochraceus BIO 37310 in vitro using well (dip) test method. The results showed that C. krusei (BIO 211287, BIO 211288, and BIO 211289) inhibited A. ochraceus BIO 37310. In vivo the highest yeast population was found in coffee beans processed using a semi-wet method inoculated with C. krusei BIO 211288 (46,222 ± 9,576 cfu/g), which was not significantly different from that of the coffee beans inoculated with C. krusei BIO 211287 (36,333 ± 14,000 cfu/g). The three yeast isolates were also able to grow either in coffee beans processed using wet or semi-wet methods inoculated with A. ochraceus BIO 37310 and each yeast isolate. Interaction between the three yeast isolates and A. ochraceus BIO 37310 resulted in E-type interaction, i.e. the fungus was not able to grow anymore, while the yeasts grew further. The total cupping scores of coffee beans inoculated with the three yeast isolates were higher than those of coffee beans uninoculated and inoculated with commercial lactic acid bacteria. The three yeast isolates could be used as biocontrol agents of A. ochraceus BIO 37310 and increase the sensorial quality of coffee beverages.


Download data is not yet available.


Atmawinata O. 2002. Peranan uji citarasa dalam pengendalian mutu kopi. Materi Pelatihan Uji Citarasa Kopi. Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao, Jember. [The role of cupping test in controlling the quality of coffee beans. (Paper presented at Training on Coffee Cupping Test at the Indonesian Coffee and Cacao Research Institute, Jember.

BPOM [Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia]. 2018. Peraturan Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia Nomor 8 Tahun 2018 tentang Batas Maksimum Cemaran Kimia dalam Pangan Olahan. Jakarta (ID): Badan POM RI.

Brazil. 2011. Rules on maximum permitted limits for mycotoxins in foods and beverages. Resolution RDC No. 7 of February 18, 2011. Brasilia (BR): Brazilian Ministry of Health.

Bui-Klimke TR, Wu F. 2015. Ochratoxin A and human health risk: A review of the evidence. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55(13):1860-9. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.724480

Clark HA, Snedeker SM. 2006. Ochratoxin A: Its cancer risk and potential for exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health B 9:265-96.

Dan H, Zhenk XD, Yin YM, Sun P, Zhang HY. 2003. Yeast application for controlling apple postharvest disease associated with Penicillium expansum. Bot Bull Acad Sin 44:211-6.

Dharmaputra OS, Ambarwati S, Retnowati I. Nurfadila N. 2019. Fungal infection of stored Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) beans in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. BIOTROPIA 26(2): 127-35.

de Souza ML, Passamani FRF, da Silva-Àvila CL, Batista LR, Schwan RF, Silva CF. 2017. Use of wild yeasts as a biocontrol agent against toxigenic fungi and OTA production. Acta Sientiarum. Agronomy 39(3):349-58. DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v39i3.32659

El Gouth A, Wilson CL, Wisniewski M. 2003. Control of postharvest decay of apple fruit with Candida saitoana and induction of defense responses. J Phytopathol 93:344-8.

Gabungan Eksportir Kopi Indonesia [Internet]. 2018. Luas areal dan produksi kopi di Indonesia [Areal and coffee production in Indonesia]. Available from: http://gaeki.or.id/areal-dan-produksi

Guetsky R, Shtienberg D, Elad Y, Fischer E, Dinoor A. 2002. Improving biological control by combining biocontrol agents each with several mechanism of disease suppression. J Phytopathol 92:976-85.

Janisiewicz WJ, Korsten L. 2002. Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruits. Ann Rev Phytopath 40(24):411-41.

Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia. 2012. Peraturan Menteri Pertanian RI Nomor 52/Permentan/OT.140/9/2012 tentang Pedoman Penanganan Pascapanen Kopi [Regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia Number OT.140/9/2012 concerning Guidelines of Coffee Postharvest Handling]. Jakarta (ID): Kementerian Pertanian Republik Indonesia. Available from: Ditjenpp.kemenkumham.go.id/arsip/bn/ 2012/bn909-2012lamp.pdf.

Korsten L. 2006. Advances in control of postharvest diseases in tropical fresh produce. Intern J Postharvest Technol Innovation 1(1):48-61.

Masoud W. Cesar LB. Jespersen L. Jakobsen M. 2004. Yeast involved in fermentation of Coffea arabica in East Africa determined by genotyping and by direct denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis. Yeast 21:549-56.

Masoud W, Poll L, Jakobsen M. 2005. Influence of volatile compounds produced by yeasts predominant during processing of Coffea arabica in East on growth and ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Aspergillus ochraceus. Yeast 22:1133-42.

Pereira GVM, Soccol VT, Pandey A, Medeiros AB, Andrade LJM, Gollo AL, Soccol CR. 2014. Isolation, selection, and evaluation of yeast for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process. Intern J Food Microbiol 188: 61–66. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.07.008.

Pereira GVM. Soccol VT. Brar SK. Neto E. Soccol CR. 2015. Microbial ecology and starter culture technology in coffee processing. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutrition 57:2775-88. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2015.1067759

Richard WJ, Prusky D. 2002. Expression of an antifungal peptide in Saccharomyces: A new approach for biological control of the postharvest disease caused by Colletotrichum coccodes. Phytopathology 92(1):33-7.

Saepudin A. 2005. Evaluasi faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi citarasa kopi Arabika dengan menggunakan Manova dan analisis profil. [Evaluation of factors affecting flavor of Arabica coffee using Manova and profile analyses]. [Thesis]. Bogor (ID): Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

SCAA. 2015. The Basics of Cupping Coffee. Specialty Coffee Association of America.

Skidmore AM, Dickinson CH. 1976. Colony interaction and hyphal interference between Septoria nodorum and phlloplane fungi. Trans Brit Mycol Soc 66(1): 57–64. DOI: 10.1016/S0007-1536(76)80092-7

Velmourougane K et al. 2011. Management of Aspergillus ochraceus and ochratoxin A contamination in coffee during on-farm processing through commercial yeast inoculation. Biol Control 57(3):215-21.

Vilela DM, Pereira GVM, Silva CF, Batista LR, Schwan RF. 2010. Molecular ecology and polyphasic characterization of the microbiota associated with semi-dry processed coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Food Microbiol 27:1128-35.

Walton J. 2018. Countries produce most coffee. New York: Investopedia [updated 2019 Feb 09; cited 2018 Oct 31]. Available from https://www.investopedia.com/articles/ investing/

Wheeler KA, Hocking AD. 1993. Interactions among xerophilic fungi associated with dried salted fish. J Appl Bacteriol 74: 164-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1993.tb03010.x




How to Cite

Dharmaputra, O. S., Retnowati, I., & Nurfadila, N. (2023). POTENCY OF YEAST AS A BIOCONTROL AGENT OF OCHRATOXIN A-PRODUCING FUNGI AND ITS EFFECT ON ARABICA COFFEE TASTE. BIOTROPIA - The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology, 30(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.11598/btb.2023.30.1.1379

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>