GENETIC VARIATION OF WILD Musa acuminata COLLA FROM INDONESIA BASED ON RAPD AND ISSR MARKERS
Musa acuminata Colla is one of the progenitors of cultivated bananas today, and Indonesia is the center of origin and diversity of M. acuminata. Genetic variation of wild M. acuminata from Indonesia has not been studied extensively. This study was conducted to assess genetic variation of wild M. acuminata from Indonesia based on 10 RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and 10 ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) markers. The genetic properties of 17 populations of wild M. acuminata were analyzed by Popgene 1.32 based on Nei’s unbiased measures of genetic identity and genetic distance. A total of 443 DNA bands were produced, 425 (95.94%) of which were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of combined data of RAPD and ISSR produced a dendrogram which separated the population of M. acuminata (A genome) from M. balbisiana (B genome), but not from M. schizocarpa (S genome). Genetic distance (Nei, 1978) of the 17 populations of wild M. acuminata ranged from 0.3676 to 0.1634. The highest genetic distance was observed between M. acuminata var rutilifes (from East Java) and M. acuminata var sumatrana (from West Sumatra). The percentages of polymorphic loci among the 17 populations of M. acuminata ranged from 9.93% to 39.73%. Nei’s (1973) gene diversity (h) ranged from 0.041 to 0.1418. M. acuminata var malaccensis population was the most diverse population among the 17 M. acuminata populations studied. The high level of genetic diversity of the wild M. acuminata from Indonesia emphasizes the need for conservation and preservation of the natural population and its use in banana breeding program.
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