GENETIC VARIATION OF WILD Musa acuminata COLLA FROM INDONESIA
Indonesia is the center of origin and diversity of Musa acuminata Colla, one of the progenitors of cultivated bananas today. However, the genetic variation of wild M. acuminata has not been studied extensively, thus this study aimed to assess the genetic variation of the Indonesian wild M. acuminata based on 10 RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and 10 ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) markers. The genetic properties of 17 populations of wild M. acuminata were analyzed by Popgene 1.32 based on Nei’s unbiased measures of genetic identity and genetic distance. Of the 443 DNA bands produced, 425 (95.94%) were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the combined data of RAPD and ISSR produced a dendrogram which separated the population of M. acuminata (A genome) from M. balbisiana (B genome), but not from M. schizocarpa (S genome). Nei’s genetic distance of the 17 populations of wild M. acuminata ranged from 0.3676 to 0.1634. The highest genetic distance was observed between M. acuminata var rutilifes (from East Java) and M. acuminata var sumatrana (from West Sumatra). The percentages of polymorphic loci among the 17 populations of M. acuminata ranged from 9.93% to 39.73%. Nei’s gene diversity (h) ranged from 0.041 to 0.1418. M. acuminata var malaccensis population was the most diverse among the researched 17 M. acuminata. The high level of genetic diversity of the wild M. acuminata from Indonesia emphasizes the need for conservation and preservation of the natural population and its use in the banana breeding program.
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