GENETIC VARIATIONS AMONG AQUILARIA SPECIES AND GYRINOPS VERSTEEGII USING AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM MARKERS
AbstractAquilaria sp. (Thymelaeaceae) is the most valuable non wood production ofÂ forestry plant in Indonesia. It produces a fragrant resin when subjected to fungal attack and has been traded internationallyÂ knownÂ asÂ gaharu. KnowledgeÂ ofÂ Â geneticÂ diversityÂ andÂ relationshipÂ among species and genus is important for breeding purposes and species conservation. In this study, Â Â genetic variability ofÂ six Aquilaria species were analyzed using the AmplifiedFragment Length Â PolymorphismÂ (AFLP)Â markers.Â TenÂ AFLPÂ primer combinationsÂ amplifiedÂ 1353Â DNA Â fragments rangingÂ in size from100 to 350 bp ofÂ which 1285 (95%) ofÂ them were polymorphic. Genetic similarities among Aquilaria sp. consisted ofÂ A. malaccensis, A. beccariana, A. microcarpa, and A.Â crassnaÂ rangedÂ from 63.90Â to 72.00 % based on Dice coefficient. The dendrogram Â derived by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean ofÂ germplasm analysis were clustered into two main groups. Hence, a genetic variation among species is quiet high. Â Â BootstrapÂ values forÂ theÂ groupsÂ supportedÂ 70%Â ofÂ Â theÂ clusterÂ usingÂ a linearÂ relationship Â equation ofÂ (r = 0.724, P < 0.0001) was observedbetween known pedigrees and AFLP-derived Â genetic similarity for 136 pairwise comparisons ofÂ Aquilaria species. For example, A. malacensis and A. microcarpa have the highest genetic similarity (72.00%) compared with another Aquilaria species. Primer pairs E-ACG/M-CTA produced a specific fragment for A. beccariana (850 bp), A.Â crasna (550 bp, 180 bp, and 140 bp), A. malaccencis (1500 bp), A. microcarpa (250 bp) and Gyrinops versteegii (150 bp). Primer pairs E-ACG/M-CAA produced a specific DNA fragment only for A. beccariana (1500 bp and 100 bp).Â Primer pairs E-ACC/M-CAC also produced only Â specific fragment for A. crassna (1500 bp). Study showed the usefulness ofÂ AFLP analysis in Â AquilariaÂ sp.Â andÂ itsÂ potentialÂ applicationÂ forÂ breeding andÂ speciesÂ conservation.Â Further, molecularÂ diversityÂ estimatedÂ inÂ theÂ presentÂ studyÂ combinedÂ withÂ theÂ datasetsÂ onÂ other morphological/agronomicÂ traits will be usefulÂ forÂ selectingÂ the appropriate accessionsÂ for plant improvementÂ through conventional and molecular breeding approaches.Key words: Gaharu, Aquilaria sp., Gyrinops sp., genetic diversity, molecular marker, amplified fragmentÂ length polymorphismÂ (AFLP)
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