POLLINATION EFFECTIVENESS OF APIS CERANA FABRICUS AND APIS MELLIFERA LINNAEUS (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE) IN JATROPHA CURCAS L. (EUPHORBIACEAE)
AbstractÂ Pollinators are well known to provide key ecosystem. Animal pollinators are thought to contribute between 15 and 30% of global food production and bees are recognized to be the most important taxon. The pollination effectiveness of two species of bees, Apis cerana and A. mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) was studied.Â Three cages, made of insect screen were set up.Â Each cage contains three individual plants. One colony of A. mellifera and A. cerana were placed in the first and second cage, while the third cage was used for control plants. Bee colonies were placed during one month in the first and second cages.Â Â Fruit set of plants pollinated by A. mellifera, A. cerana, control plants, and open plants were counted and compared.Â Pollination by honeybees increased the number of fruits per plant and fruits per raceme of J. curcas. Based on measuring of fruit produced by plants, pollination effectiveness of A. mellifera was higher than A. carana. Â Key words: Pollination, effectiveness, Apis cerana, A. mellifera, seed set, Jatropha curcas.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree with the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work 1 year after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons attribution-noncommerical-noderivatesÂ 4.0 InternationalÂ License that allows others to share, copy and redistribute the work in any medium or format,Â but only where the use is for non-commercial purposesÂ and an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal is mentioned.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).