REVIEW ON AFLATOXIN IN INDONESIAN FOOD- AND FEEDSTUFFS AND THEIR PRODUCTS
AbstractÂ Aflatoxin is a human carcinogen thatÂ could contaminate food- and feedstuffs, and hence is a major food quality problem throughout the world. Afiatoxin is produced by certain strains of AspergillusJlavus and //. parasiticus. A number of studies have been carried out in Indonesia on atlatoxin contamination in Indonesian food- and feedstuffs and their products from 1990 up to present. They were maize, maize product, peanuts, soybean and soybean meal, black and white pepper, feed ingredients; chicken and duck feeds. Samples were collected from farmers, traders (middlemen), retailers (markets), supermarkets, exporters; poultry and duck community-based farms; and feed mi l lÂ industries. High levels of aflatoxins were often found in maize, peanuts, chicken feed derived from markets, and duck feed. Low levels of aflatoxins were found in soybean meal and chicken feedstuff. Aflatoxins were not detected in soybean, black and white pepper. Other studies have also been carried out on the effect of carbondioxide (CO2), phosphine, black pepper extract and antagonistic fungi on aflatoxin production ofÂ A. flavus in vitro\Â and the effect of airtight storage, phosphine, ammonium hydroxide, fermentation process, bag types, and phosphine in combination with different bag types on atlatoxin contents of maize, peanuts and soybean meal. Some of these methods reduced aflatoxin contents significantly. Keywords: Aspergillus flavus I Aflatoxin / Food-and feed stuffs / Product
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