• Arkalgud Ganeshamurthy Indian Institute of Horticultural research



AAA, AAB, ABB, banana growing states, banana stock estimation, carbon stock, cultivars, plant carbon, soc


The global interest in increasing the world's carbon stocks is skewed towards perennial woody ecosystems. But a continuous shortage of land stands in the way of achieving the goal. We must therefore aim to explore viable alternatives. The banana as a potential carbon sequester attracted little attention from researchers. Therefore, this study aimed at estimating the potential of bananas in different states of India as potential carbon sequesters. Data was collected from twelve major banana producers between January 2021 and December 2022. One hundred banana gardens were sampled in each of the 12 banana-producing states, covering the major bananas grown (AAA, AAB, and ABB). The above-ground (AGB) and below-ground (BGB) biomass were calculated using the allometric equation with pseudostem volume as the allometric parameter. The dry weight obtained from the allometric equations was then converted to carbon using a dry weight to carbon conversion factor. Sequestered carbon varied with the AAA, AAB, and ABB of bananas. Banana plant carbon stock was also found to be very small, ranging from 2.573 to 6.407 t/ha, compared with very high soil carbon ranging from 39.55 to 77.14t. In all the banana-cultivating states, the proportion of carbon contained in the plant to that in the soil was only 8.286 percent, and that of soil carbon accounted for 91.714%. At the national level, the banana crop sequestered 48.627 million metric tonnes of carbon, with soil carbon accounting for 44.798 metric tonnes and plant carbon accounting for only 3.828 metric tonnes per year. Despite these small amounts of plant carbon, the banana cropping system enriches the soil by enabling much more carbon to be sequestered into the soil in amounts comparable to other perennial plantations.


Download data is not yet available.


Arrouays D, Isabelle V, Luckicin J. 1995. Spatial analysis and modelingof top soil carbon storage in temperate forest humic loamy soil ofFrance. Soil Science. 159, 191-198. DOI:

Batjes N.H. 2001.Options for increasing carbon sequestration in West African soils: An exploratory study with special focus on Senegal. Land Degradation and Development. 12, 131-142. DOI:

Charrier A, Jacquot M, Hamon S, Nicolas D. 1997. L'amélioration des plantes tropicales. Montpellier (FRA) ; Paris : CIRAD ; ORSTOM, 624 p. (Repères). ISBN 2-87614-292-9. ISSN 1251-7224.

Chhabra A, Palria S, Dadhwal A. K. 2003. Soil organic carbon pools in Indian forests. For. Ecol. Manage. 2003. 173: 187-199. DOI:

DAC & FW 2018. Horticultural Statistics at a Glance 2018, Horticulture Statistics Division, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC&FW), Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Government of India.

Danarto S.A, Hapsari L. 2017. Biomass and carbon stock estimation inventory of indonesian bananas (musa spp.) and its potential role for land rehabilitation. Biotropia. 22: 102-108.

Dickson B.A, Crocker R.L. 1953. A chronosequence of soils andvegetation near Mt. Shasta, California, I and II. Soil Science. 4: 142-154. DOI:

Elbehri A, Calberto G, Staver C, Hospido A.2016. Ecuador’s Banana Sector Under Climate Change. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

FAO. 2018. Reducing Carbon and Water Footprints in Banana Plantations. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

FAO. 2022. Banana: 2022. en/#:~:text=More%20than%201%20000%20varieties,volume%20of%2050%20million%20tonnes

FSI, 2017. Carbon stocks in India’s forests. In India State of Forest Report 2017 Chapter 8.0, Forest Survey of India.

Ganeshamurthy 2012. Annual Report, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru

Ganeshamurthy A.N, Ravindra V, Rupa T.R, Bhat R.M. 2019.Carbon Sequestration Potential of Mango Orchards in India Current Sci. 117(12): 2006-2013. DOI:

Gupta M. K.2011. Soil organic carbon pools under different land use in Haridwar district of Uttarakhand. Indian For., 137: 1-8. 28.

Hairiah K, Dewi S, Agus F, Velarde S, Ekadinata A, Rahayu S, Van N.M. 2010. Measuring carbon stocks across land use systems: A Manual, Bogor, Indonesia. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), SEA Regional Office. 155p.

Jenny H. 1950. Causes of high nitrogen and organic matter content ofcertain tropical forest soils. Soil Science. 69: 63-69. DOI:

Johnson M.G. 1995. The role of soil management in sequestering soilcarbon. In ‘Soil management and greenhouse effects’. (Eds R Lal,JM Kimble, RF Follet, BA Stewart) pp. 351–363. (Lewis Publishers,Boca Raton, FL). DOI:

Joris A, Leo D.N, Anne G. 2013. Valuing the carbon sequestration potential for European agriculture. Land Use Policy 31: 584-594. DOI:

Kamusingize D, Mwanjalolo J.M, KomutungaE, Tumwebaze S, NowakundaK, Namanya P Kamu J.K. 2017. Carbon sequestration potential of East African Highland Banana cultivars (Musa spp. AAA-EAHB) cv. Kibuzi, Nakitembe, Enyeru and Nakinyika in Uganda. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management. 8: 44-51. DOI:

Lal R. 2011. Sequestering carbon in soils of agro-ecosystems. Food Policy 36:S33-S39. De Langhe E. 2000. Diversity in the genus Musa, its significance and its potential. ActaHort. 540: 81-86. DOI:

Naitam, R and Bhattachaarya, T. Quasi-equilibrium of organic carbon in shrink–swell soilsof the subhumid tropics in India under forest, horticulture, andagricultural systems. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 2004. 42, 181-188 DOI:

Nkoulou L.F.M, a b f, Ninla L.A.T, Cros,D, Martin G, Ndiang Z, Houegban J, Ngalle H.B, Bell J.M, Achigan-Dako E.G. 2023. Analysis of genetic diversity and agronomic variation in banana sub-populations for genomic selection under drought stress in southern Benin. Gene. 859, 147210 DOI:

Nyombi K, Van Asten P.J.A, Leffelaar P.A, Corbeels M, Kaizzi C.K, Giller K.E. 2009. Allometric growth relationships of East Africa highland bananas (Musa AAA-EAHB) cv. Kisansa and Mbwazirume. Ann. Appl. Biol. 155: 403-418. DOI:

Oliveira C.D, Donato S.L.R, Mizobutsi G.P, Silva J.D, Mizobutsi E.H. 2013. Características pós-colheita de bananas 'Prata-Anã'e' BRS Platina'armazenadas sob refrigeração. Revista Brasileira Fruticultura. 35(3): 891-897. DOI:

Ortiz-UlloaJ.A, Abril-Gonzalez M.F, Pelaez-Samaniego M.R, Silvana T. 2020. Biomass yield and carbon a batement potential of banana crops (Musa spp.) in Ecuador. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. DOI:

Paswel M, Ephraim N, Wei X, Jose D, Edward K. 2012. Which policy would work better for improved soil fertility management in subSaharan Africa, fertilizer subsidies or carbon credits? Agric. Syst. 110: DOI:


Ravi I, Uma S, Vaganana M, Mustafa M. 2013. Phenotyping bananas for drought resistance. Frontiers in Physiology 4(9): 1-14. DOI:

Reay D.2019. Climate-Smart Food. eBook.https:// DOI:

Saranya S, Aneesa Rani M.S, Raveendran M, Kalaiyarasi R and Auxcilia J. 2021. Molecular characterization of diploid and triploid banana germplasms through DNA finger printing using ISSR markers.The Pharma Innovation Journal 2021; 10(10): 1876-1882.

Soraisham L.D, Gogoi N, Mishra L, Basu G. 2021. Extraction and Evaluation of Properties of Indian Banana Fibre (Musa Domestica Var. Balbisiana, BB Group) and Its Processing with Ramie. J.Natural Fibewrs. https%3A%2F%2Fwww.

Souza E.L, Sellin N, Marangoni C, Souza O. 2010. The Influence of Different Strategies for the Saccharification of the Banana Plant Pseudostem and the Detoxification of Concentrated Brothon Bioethanol Production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 183: 943-965. DOI:

Statista 2022. Volume of banana produced across India from financial year 2015 to 2021, with an estimate for 2022. 1038905/india-production-of-banana/

Stevens B, Diels J, Brown A, Bayo S, Ndakidemi P.A, Swennen R. 2020. Banana Biomass Estimation and Yield Forecasting from Non-Destructive Measurements for Two Contrasting Cultivars and Water Regimes. Agronomy 10: 1435. DOI:

Turner D.W. 2003. Factors affecting the physiology of the banana root system. In: Turner DW, Rosales FE (Eds) Banana Root System: Towards a better understanding for its productive management. Proceedings of an international symposium held in San Jose, Costa Rica. pp. 107-113.

Tutwiler M.A, Bailey A, Attwood S, Remans R, Ramirez M. 2017. Agricultural biodiversity and food system sustainability Transformation. In book: Mainstreaming Agrobiodiversity in Sustainable Food Systems.

UNFCC 2020.The clean development mechanism. Mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol, In­protoco1/mechanisms-under-the-kyoto-p rotocoI/th e-cIean- development-mechanism.

WRAP. 2013. Household food and drink waste in the United Kingdom 2012. Waste and Resource Action Programme. wrap/ hhfdw-2012-main.pdf.pdf .




How to Cite