EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SOIL ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES ON THE OCCURRENCE, DISTRIBUTION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF VA MYCORRHIZAE
AbstractThe vesicular - arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi are geographically ubiquitous soil inhabitants and form universal symbiotic relationship with plants from every phylum. These fungi link host plants with host soils and their biota in the mycorrhizosphere and playÂ anÂ importantÂ roleÂ inÂ plantÂ health,Â productivityÂ andÂ soilÂ structure. AlthoughÂ VA mycorrhizalÂ fungiÂ doÂ notÂ showÂ anyÂ hostÂ specificity,Â thereÂ isÂ increasingÂ evidenceÂ that variousÂ climaticÂ andÂ edaphicÂ environmentalÂ factorsÂ suchÂ asÂ landÂ useÂ and management practices,Â physical,Â chemicalÂ andÂ biologicalÂ propertiesÂ ofÂ hostÂ soilsÂ andÂ hostÂ plant characteristicsÂ influenceÂ theirÂ occurrence,Â taxonomicÂ distributionÂ andÂ effectiveness. The interaction of these factors with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) is poorly understood except in a few cases. It is now very clear that VA mycorrhizal associations are ecologically significant factors that require more attention than previously accorded. ThisÂ paperÂ discussesÂ theÂ occurrence,Â distributionÂ andÂ significanceÂ ofÂ VAMÂ in environmentallyÂ stressedÂ soilÂ conditionsÂ thatÂ limitÂ plantÂ growthÂ suchÂ asÂ drought, waterlogging and salinity.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â KeyÂ words:Â Mycorrhizas/EnvironmentalÂ factors/Waterlogging/SoilÂ salinity/GrowthÂ developmentÂ stages/ Inoculum.
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