broiler colistin Escherichia coli mcr-1 supply chain


Vol. 26 No. 2 (2019)
Research Paper
August 27, 2018
January 24, 2019


Colistin is the last drug choice for dealing with the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae bacteria; hence, this drug is very crucial to human health. The discovery of a plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant gene, the mobilized colistin resistance-1 (mcr-1), signals a significant global health threat. Colistin sulfate is an antimicrobial agent which has been approved for use in broilers in Indonesia. Thus, this study aimed to measure the prevalence of colistin-resistant E. coli and to detect the mcr-1 colistin-resistant gene in E. coli, and E. coli O157:H7 in the entire supply chain of broilers in Bogor Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia. Samples were taken from 47 flocks that used colistin sulfate (47 samples of cloacal swabs, 47 samples of drinking water, and 47 samples of litters), seventy fresh meat samples and seven samples plucker swabs from seven small-scale poultry slaughterhouses, seventy fresh meat samples from seven traditional markets, and seventy cooked meat samples from seven small restaurants. The isolation of E. coli was done on each of the 358 samples, and 493 isolates were obtained. All the E. coli isolates were then tested for their susceptibility to colistin sulfate by using the agar dilution method. The detection of the mcr-1 gene from the colistin-resistant isolates (minimum inhibitory concentration > 2 µg/mL) was conducted using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence value of colistin-resistant E. coli in all the isolates was at 11.76% (CI 95%; CL 9.21–14.91%), and the prevalence of mcr-1 gene was at 10.55% CI 95%; CL 8.13–13.57%).  A very good agreement correlation existed between the colistin-resistant phenotype and the mcr-1 gene (ĸ = 0.939). The mcr-1 gene was found in 89.66% colistin-resistant E. coli isolates. The two colistin-resistant and mcr-1 carrying gene isolates were identified as E. coli O157:H7 serotype. This research was the first study attempt on the mcr-1 gene in Indonesia, covering the entire supply chain of broiler meat from farms to consumers. The results indicated the necessity to reduce the use of colistin sulfate in broiler management and to improve biosecurity measures, not only in farms but also in the entire supply chain of broiler meat production.

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