MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE ECOTYPES OF Echinochloa crus-galli var crus-galli (L). Beauv (Barnyard grass: Poaceae) IN MALAYSIA and INDONESIA

SOET1KNO S SASTROUTOMO, ABDUL SHUKOR JURAIMI, JUGAH KADIR, SUHAIMI NAPIS, ARIFIN TASRIF

Abstract


Greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the morphological traits of barnyard grass ecotypes from
diverse geographic origin. Seeds (caryopsis) were collected from 17 locations of  rice fields throughout Malaysia (11 states)
and Indonesia (six provinces) and were grown in pots each  containing 10 kg of paddy field soil. The experiments were
arranged using completely randomized design (CRD) with five  replicates. Mean separation was calculated using Duncan
multiple range test at 5% probability level. Unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was
performed to determine the individual relationship within ecotypes of barnyard grass. Twelve morphological traits such as
culm, panicle, leaf, and spikelet traits were measured. The growth characters such as emergence date, heading time, and
growth duration were also evaluated.
The average of emergence date, heading time, and growth duration of barnyard grass collected from Perils, Kedah,
Penang, and Johor were relatively earlier than other ecotypes. Six groups were classified based on the cluster analysis of
Malaysian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Principal component  indicated that group six was found to be highly variable
compared to others. While three groups were identified in Indonesian ecotypes of barnyard grass. Group one was observed
to be highly variable. Results demonstrated that morphological variation among  ecotypes of barnyard grass showing
differences between the two regions illustrate the role of geographic variation.
Key words : Variation / ecotypes / paddy field weeds / barnyard grass.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11598/btb.2004.0.22.206

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